Pandemic Action Network Statement on the Second Global COVID-19 Summit

The Second Global COVID-19 Summit showed a renewed commitment to end the COVID-19 crisis and prevent the next pandemic threat. Against complacency and pandemic fatigue, leaders from over 35 countries, the private sector, philanthropy, and civil society brought forward new actions and commitments — both financial and non-financial — to meet urgent needs across the summit’s priorities of vaccinating the world, protecting the most vulnerable, and preventing future pandemics. Financial commitments totaled almost US$3.2 billion, with approximately US$2.5 billion in funding from governments, and approximately US$700 million from the private sector, foundations, and other non-government actors.

Statement from Carolyn Reynolds, Co-Founder, Pandemic Action Network

Today’s Global COVID-19 Summit was a win against complacency and has provided a much-needed shot in the arm for both the global COVID response and to begin to prepare the world for the next pandemic threat. We are pleased that the Summit has yielded important new commitments to vaccinate the world, save lives, and nearly US$1 billion to establish a new Fund for global health security and pandemic preparedness. This is a significant down payment and enables the World Bank to move forward on establishing the Fund this summer. But we must maintain the momentum beyond today and political leaders must stay in the fight. This pandemic is not over, and the world must move faster to deliver lifesaving tools and prepare for whatever variant or pandemic threat is coming next. The U.S. Congress must urgently approve additional funding for the global COVID response, and other governments and private and philanthropic partners must step up support for the response and for the Fund as soon as possible. 

Statement from Eloise Todd, Co-Founder, Pandemic Action Network

World leaders‘ commitments at the Global COVID-19 Summit today have helped give a much-needed reset to the global COVID response. But without sustained and decisive action, the world could slip into permanent inequity between those that are able to be treated and vaccinated for COVID-19 and those that are not. All eyes are on global and regional bodies to see how they can build on today’s starting shot and deliver real progress by the G7 Summit at the end of June. 

As long championed by Pandemic Action Network, equity featured prominently in both reflections on the COVID-19 pandemic and in new commitments. We welcome commitments and new investments to close the funding gap for the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A), solve for last-mile vaccination delivery challenges, accelerate access to generic therapeutics, and diversify manufacturing and procurement of medical countermeasures to build strong and sustainable systems in every region of the world. 

Pandemic Action Network was also pleased to see political and financial support for a new Fund for Global Health Security and Pandemic Preparedness from across sectors. As we double down to end the COVID-19 pandemic, we also must look ahead and prepare both for future COVID-19 variants and emerging disease threats. Government leaders from around the world stepped up today to support a new pandemic preparedness fund and advocated for the need to include diverse voices in the design and governance of a new fund. Financial commitments from the U.S., European Commission, Germany, and the Wellcome Trust total nearly US$1 billion, and represent a significant down payment toward the US$10 billion needed annually for this Fund.

But while today’s Summit serves as a needed jolt to the global COVID-19 effort, there is still much work to do. Today’s financial commitments for response sum just over US$2 billion, and while this funding is urgently needed, it’s long overdue and far short of the current ACT-A funding gap (nearly $US15 billion). It is critical that all governments and sectors step up and prioritize significant new resources to end the global COVID crisis — including the U.S. Congress and Administration working together to transcend politics and quickly pass at least US$5 billion for the global COVID-19 response. In addition, it is critical to heed the call from many African leaders for Gavi, the Global Fund, and other vaccine purchasers to prioritize purchases from African vaccine manufacturers to ensure new facilities are sustainable. It will also be important for a diversity of donors and stakeholders to commit to the new Fund for Global Health Security and Pandemic Preparedness to ensure it is inclusive, representative, and effective. 

As we look ahead to the World Health Assembly, G7 and G20 Summits, and UN General Assembly, Pandemic Action Network will stay vigilant to make sure Summit commitments are realized and accountable, and that world leaders are collectively challenging themselves to do whatever it takes to end this crisis for everyone, everywhere.

Steps Taken, a Leap Required — CEPI’s Replenishment Statement

Today, as the world reaches a grim milestone of six million official deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic and as Russia wages war in Ukraine, world leaders gathered at the Global Pandemic Preparedness Summit to address what we must do better to prevent and prepare for pandemic threats. The Summit, organized by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and the U.K. Government, represented a critical opportunity for global leaders to prioritize pandemic preparedness and support CEPI’s groundbreaking 5-year plan to develop life-saving vaccines to help prevent a crisis of similar scale to the COVID-19 pandemic, including its 100 Days Mission to develop safe and effective vaccines in 100 days following an outbreak. 

Pledges of financial and political support were made in nearly equal measure with a total of 13 countries and 2 philanthropic donors pledging US$1.54 billion to CEPI’s US$3.5 billion five-year plan. Japan’s announcement of US$300 million made it the largest contributor, followed by the U.K. in addition to commitments from Australia, Austria, Finland, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, and the U.S. 

At least nine other countries (Brazil, Canada, Greece, Kuwait, Lithuania, Nigeria, South Korea, Spain, and Switzerland) and the European Commission expressed their support, though no specific financial contribution was mentioned. 

While this is a welcome and important first step toward a world that is better prepared for pandemic threats, it is disappointing that many governments failed to match political support with bold and meaningful financial commitments. The COVID-19 pandemic showed us that the world is ill-prepared to prevent and respond to a pandemic caused by a novel respiratory pathogen. The pandemic research and development (R&D) system as it exists does not work to address the challenges of emerging infectious diseases. As we look toward year three of COVID, we are already witnessing the familiar and costly cycle of panic and neglect around pandemics spinning into motion. CEPI’s plan to reduce vaccine development time to 100 days is one in a set of critical measures to get ahead of the cycle of panic and neglect and avoid another trillion-dollar pandemic that needlessly costs millions of lives and livelihoods. 

Eloise Todd, Pandemic Action Network’s co-founder, said:

“While today’s commitments of over US$1.5 billion to CEPI are a welcome and strong start, they are not enough. The COVID crisis showed us that the vaccine R&D system as it exists cannot meet the challenges of emerging infectious diseases before they cause severe damage, nor can it ensure all people everywhere have equitable access to the tools and technologies they need to curb a global health emergency. Leaders can avoid repeating past mistakes and build a system that is forward looking and equitable. Fully funding CEPI is an impactful way to do just that. An investment in CEPI is a fraction of the trillions lost to pandemic response and an investment that pays a multitude of dividends. We expect key global leaders to step up in the coming weeks to align their financial commitments with their political commitments, and make a fully-funded CEPI a reality.”

Pandemic Action Network and its network of over 250 partners will follow up closely on the actions of governments, philanthropies, and decision makers who have expressed their commitment to this goal, especially those key global leaders who can convene other governments, rally support, and mobilize resources. Building on the strong momentum from the Global Pandemic Preparedness Summit, concerted action from world leaders in the coming months will be crucial to fully fund CEPI and ensuring the COVID crisis leaves a legacy of pandemic preparedness.

CEPI’s Unique Impact Opportunity: Pandemic Preparedness & Response R&D

The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) was founded with the mission to accelerate the development of vaccines against emerging infectious diseases (EID) and enable equitable access for all during outbreaks. Less than three years after its start, CEPI’s quick response during the COVID-19 pandemic propelled the development and manufacturing of new vaccines and it was the only entity with the mandate to invest in de-risking COVID-19 vaccine research and development (R&D) with global access in mind. CEPI’s role fills some of the critical gaps that governments do not address and on March 7-8, the U.K. Government will host the CEPI replenishment at the Pandemic Preparedness Summit. The replenishment aims to raise US$3.5 billion for the delivery of CEPI’s critical 2022-2026 strategy to accelerate the development of vaccines and other health tools against epidemic and pandemic threats.

Produced by Pandemic Action Network and DSW, CEPI’s Unique Impact Opportunity: Pandemic Preparedness & Response R&D examines the characteristics and ways in which CEPI is distinctly positioned to bolster global and regional health security initiatives, especially through vaccine R&D against EIDs, to ensure the world is equipped to end the COVID crisis for everyone and is better prepared for the next pandemic.

Key messages of the brief explainer include:

  • CEPI is uniquely positioned to address global pandemic threats through vaccine R&D for emerging infectious diseases.
  • Because of its commitment to equitable access for the global good, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, CEPI’s work leads to increased access and distribution of much-needed vaccines to traditionally underserved populations.
  • Building on its role, investments, and relationships, CEPI delivers catalytic impact globally in pandemic preparedness and response.
  • CEPI fills critical gaps in the vaccine R&D ecosystem that would otherwise go unfilled.
  • Emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, do not recognize international borders. CEPI’s global mandate naturally complements regional and national R&D institutions that work to counter pandemic threats.

Read the full brief.

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Calling for Bold Pandemic Action at the EU-AU Summit

African and European civil society organizations (CSOs) call on leaders in advance of the African Union (AU) – European Union (EU) Summit on February 17-18, 2022, to show solidarity in ending not only the COVID-19 crisis but also responding to global epidemics including HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria and put in place mechanisms and resources to build resilience and prepare for future pandemics. It’s time for strong and sustained political will, collective alignment, and integrated end-to-end approaches. We call on leaders to adopt the following actions at the Summit:

  1. Tackle the crisis of inequitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, and support vaccination programs
  2. Address the crisis of inequitable access to COVID-19 tools, including tests, treatments, oxygen, and PPE
  3. Invest in and strengthen the research and development (R&D) capacity in Africa
  4. Support Africa’s mRNA Technology Transfer Hub and agree to waive intellectual property (IP) for COVID-19 vaccines and other medical tools
  5. Support health systems strengthening in African countries to enable prevention, detection and response to new and existing threats
  6. Reform and strengthen multilateralism

Humanity deserves a world where every country is equipped to end the COVID-19 crisis and every country is prepared to stop infectious disease outbreaks from becoming deadly and costly pandemics. 

Read the full letter.

Organizations are welcome to sign on to the letter by Feb. 17, 2022. If your organization would like to sign on, please reach out to Aminata Wurie.

Pandemic R&D Agenda for Action: Fostering Innovation to End This Pandemic and Prepare for the Next One

As the world commences the third year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the case for investment in research and development (R&D) for medical countermeasures to prevent and combat emerging global health threats is stronger than ever. Despite tremendous scientific accomplishments in 2020-21, systemic gaps in pandemic-related R&D systems, supply chains, manufacturing, and delivery continue to stymie the roll-out of urgently needed technologies to all people who need them, everywhere, and are prolonging the pandemic.

COVID-19 and its variants have exposed longstanding market and systems failures and fragilities that pose barriers to timely and effective pandemic R&D. Not only do these persistent gaps threaten to undo progress achieved through the scientific breakthroughs, but they also exacerbate entrenched inequalities that leave the most vulnerable and disadvantaged people around the globe without access to lifesaving medical countermeasures and essential health services, and perpetuate gross power imbalances between high- and low-income nations. COVID-19 has also unleashed a multitude of actors in pandemic-related R&D across the innovation spectrum and across the globe, underscoring the growing need for more purposeful alignment, coordination, information-sharing, and transparency.

The world urgently needs a fit-for-purpose, proactive, and resilient pandemic R&D ecosystem. There is broad consensus that R&D is a vital component of building a world better equipped to prevent, prepare for, and respond to pandemic threats. Yet new investments in innovation will fail to meet their promise to save lives, prevent future global health emergencies, and build a healthier, safer world for all unless governments, international institutions, and industry are willing to heed the hard lessons of this pandemic and work together to fix these systemic failures and challenges.

Produced by Global Health Technologies Coalition and Pandemic Action Network with contributions by members of the Pandemic Action Network’s Pandemic Preparedness Working Group, this policy brief calls on world leaders to prioritize action in four key areas to close the critical R&D, manufacturing, and delivery gaps necessary to end the acute COVID-19 crisis and build a more resilient, equitable pandemic R&D ecosystem for the future.

Read the full brief here.

Bridging the Innovation Gap to Prevent the Next Pandemic — Policy Brief

The world was woefully unprepared to prevent or rapidly respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. This is the result of decades of failure by national and global policymakers to address pandemics as a systemic and growing threat. A glaring weakness is that the ecosystem for pandemic preparedness research and development (R&D) — the system that is meant to develop vaccines, treatments, and other tools for known and unknown health threats — is rife with market and systems failures that prevent it from operating efficiently, effectively, and equitably.

While pandemics can affect the whole world and create large, global markets for vaccines, treatments, and other technologies, those markets have repeatedly failed to respond with the foresight and urgency needed to match the scale, scope, and unpredictability of pandemic threats. The world must urgently address the persistent market and systems failures in the global health R&D ecosystem to prepare for the next pandemic threat.

This policy brief, prepared by Pandemic Action Network, covers the market and systems failures in the pandemic preparedness R&D ecosystem and lays out the unique role that the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) plays in leveraging partnerships and incentives to counter the failures as one key step in building a smarter, more effective and equitable pandemic R&D ecosystem.

Read the policy brief here and the full analysis here.

Addressing Market Failures: The Role of CEPI in Bridging the Innovation Gap to Prevent the Next Pandemic

The global response to COVID-19 not only shows that the world was ill-prepared to prevent and respond to a pandemic caused by a novel respiratory pathogen, but also that there are an array of system and market failures in global health research and development (R&D). Solving for these failures ― and building a ready and sustainable R&D ecosystem for pandemic preparedness ― will be critical to advancing global health security and preventing future infectious disease outbreaks from becoming the next deadly and costly pandemic.

Addressing Market Failures: The Role of CEPI in Bridging the Innovation Gap to Prevent the Next Pandemic, produced by Volta Capital, Pandemic Action Network, and the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (ACDC), examines global health R&D failures to help inform policy and funding decisions to bolster preparedness and response for emerging pandemic threats. In particular, the paper considers the unique role of CEPI in addressing some of these failures, its strengths and challenges in the COVID-19 response, and the role it can play through its new strategy to bolster future epidemic and pandemic preparedness.

Key findings of the paper include:

  • Longstanding and persistent market and systems failures in global health R&D, especially for vaccines against novel pathogens, have left the world at grave risk of deadly and costly pandemics.
  • The world cannot wait for the next pandemic to bolster investments in R&D and preparedness for emerging infectious disease threats.
  • CEPI has a key role to play in a better prepared global R&D ecosystem.

To learn more, read the full analysis Addressing Market Failures: The Role of CEPI in Bridging the Innovation Gap to Prevent the Next Pandemic and the accompanying policy brief.

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It’s Time to Pandemic-Proof the World: A 2021 Agenda for Action

The devastating health, economic, and social impacts of the COVID-19 global health crisis show that it is well past time for world leaders to prepare for pandemics as the existential, catastrophic, and growing global security threat they are. In 2010, well before COVID-19, there were six times more zoonotic spillover events than in 1980, and the number of new outbreaks continues to grow. Persistent gaps in international pandemic preparedness and response capacities have been flagged by various expert panels in the wake of previous health emergencies, but time and again, once the crisis disappears, political attention and funding shifts to other priorities. This dereliction of duty must stop once and for all.

Despite impacting people around the globe, COVID-19 has not affected everyone equally. The pandemic has exposed and exacerbated long-standing health and socio-economic inequalities within and across countries and in marginalized and vulnerable populations, including inequalities due to gender, race, ethnicity, class, and disability. The glaring disparities in global access to lifesaving COVID-19 vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics, and vital tools such as oxygen and personal protective equipment (PPE) underscore the inequitable global health and preparedness system. And the lack of proactive attention by leaders to address and account for these inequities has significantly undermined the global COVID-19 response.

As the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board (GPMB) made clear in its September 2020 report A World in Disorder, the world cannot afford to continue to ignore or delay preparations to bolster our collective defenses against emerging pandemic threats. As they battle the current crisis, countries and international institutions must act now to ensure the world is better prepared for the next pandemic threat, which may be lurking just around the corner. These commitments should include building and reliably funding a well-trained and well-equipped health and research workforce, more resilient frontline health systems, timely and transparent disease surveillance, and effective supply chains for vaccines, diagnostics, PPE, and other tools to enable every country to detect, prevent, and rapidly respond to outbreaks before they become deadly and costly pandemics. It is time to invest in a smarter, more responsive, and more resilient global health security architecture.

Pandemic Action Network’s 100+ partners urge world leaders to take urgent action in the following areas to bolster the global COVID-19 response, hasten an end to this global crisis, and lay the groundwork for a more pandemic-proof world.

Support an equitable global response to COVID-19

The only way to end this pandemic is to end it for everyone through a coordinated global response. Yet as world leaders navigate the second year of responding to COVID-19 and securing vaccine doses for their constituents, nationalist inequitable approaches are still pervasive. Recent data shows that the world has now procured enough COVID-19 vaccine doses to reach herd immunity globally, but while some high-income countries have secured multiple times the number of doses as there are eligible adults in their countries, only 0.2% of doses administered have been in low- and middle-incomes countries (LMICs). Although it may seem intuitive for governments to first take action at home, this approach belies the fact that the virus — and its swiftly spreading variants — do not respect borders. Many countries that managed to control or even stop the spread of the virus earlier in the pandemic are once again seeing a surge in cases. There simply is no effective domestic response without also embracing a global approach. Everyone deserves to hope for a swift end to the pandemic, regardless of where they live. But it will only be possible if political leaders act globally as well as locally, knowing no country will be safe until every country is safe.

1. Accelerate global access and delivery of COVID-19 vaccines needed to achieve at least 70% coverage in all countries and enable an equitable global response and recovery.

World leaders should:

  • Fully fund the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) in 2021, filling the $22.1 billion funding gap as soon as possible with countries paying their fair share for this global public good. Countries should also commit to continue to invest in research and development (R&D) as well as scale-up of proven tools to prevent, test, and treat COVID-19 and ensure that medical countermeasures are effective against all strain mutations and all variants of concern. Given the scale of resources required, countries will need to tap into fiscal stimulus funding and other financial sources beyond official development assistance (ODA).
  • Agree to a roadmap to achieve at least 70% coverage of vaccines for LMICs, with at least 30% being secured, delivered, and administered in 2021. Leaders need to agree to a fully costed plan to achieve equitable global coverage as soon as possible. The full costs of delivering and administering doses in-country should be included in this roadmap, as well as the investments in vaccine education required to increase vaccine confidence.
  • Commit to donate, free of charge, all excess COVID-19 vaccine doses to the COVAX facility in parallel to their domestic vaccination efforts and start those donations as soon as possible. Countries should immediately announce commitments to share their full surplus supply on the most ambitious timeline possible, putting plans in place to deliver on this commitment as soon as is feasible in 2021 in line with COVAX’s dose sharing principles. These donations should not count as ODA, and should be in addition to funding the ACT-A.
  • Commit to “slot swaps” as another way to give COVAX additional supply. “Slot swaps” should be undertaken whereby high-income countries reallocate some of their existing orders immediately, potentially ordering replacement vaccines to arrive farther in the future, effectively giving their earlier “slots” to COVAX to help provide vaccines for LMICs to close the current acute gap in supply.
  • Ramp up global access and delivery of rapid testing, medical oxygen, and personal protective equipment to the frontlines. Continuing shortages of PPE and medical oxygen for frontline health workers and extremely limited deployment of testing — including genetic sequencing capacity to detect variants of interest — especially in LMICs, is hampering the global COVID-19 response and is a rate limiting factor for global rollout of COVID-19 vaccines and restoration of essential health services.

Prioritize and invest in pandemic preparedness and prevention

According to the IMF, the pandemic will cost the global economy and the World Bank projects that more than 160 million people will fall into poverty by the end of 2021. Conversely, recent estimates are that as little as $10-20 billion annually can ensure the world is much better prepared to detect, prevent, and respond to the next infectious disease outbreak before it becomes another deadly and costly pandemic. To minimize human lives lost from infectious diseases and lessen the impact on countries due to economic fallout, leaders should take the actions below to be prepared for the next pandemic.

2. Establish a catalytic, sustainable multilateral financing mechanism that is dedicated to promoting pandemic preparedness and prevention.

World leaders should:

  • Pledge new investments toward a target $20 billion initial capitalization co-funded from public, private, and philanthropic sources. Priorities for this new multilateral financing mechanism — which will fill a strategic gap in the existing global health architecture — should be on supporting LMICs to develop and implement national action plans for health security and pandemic preparedness, to close their urgent health security gaps, and foster a global “race to the top” among all nations for preparedness. The catalytic nature of this mechanism will help ensure both countries and other global health initiatives prioritize coordinated, multisectoral, prevention and preparedness funding in their domestic budgets, including support for country-level programmatic and managerial capacity in health systems strengthening.
  • Align funding with target country priorities to strengthen pandemic preparedness and containment as well as promote efforts toward pandemic prevention. Programs that should be financed at scale include detecting and stopping the spread of outbreaks and ensuring compliance with the International Health Regulations (IHRs), strengthening laboratory and manufacturing capacity, bolstering and protecting a trained, compensated health workforce, building and strengthening health information systems, ensuring resilient national and regional supply chains, One Health initiatives, and stopping zoonotic spillover from causing new outbreaks through measures such as reductions in deforestation and wildlife trade.

3. Bolster financing and at-the-ready global R&D capacity and coordination to combat emerging infectious diseases and pandemic threats without undermining important funding for existing epidemics research and innovation, including poverty-related and neglected diseases.

Applying the lessons learned from COVID-19, leaders should support the development and financing of mechanisms and initiatives that coordinate and catalyze research and development for new tools, including the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership, and other not-for-profit product development partnerships (PDPs) addressing the broad range of health threats.

World leaders should:

  • Fully fund CEPI’s $3.5 billion replenishment. This funding would support the organization’s moonshot initiative of compressing vaccine development for new pandemics to 100 days, and continuing efforts to develop vaccines for known threats. It would also support CEPI’s other objectives, including preparing clinical trial networks to quickly respond to new threats, coordinating with global regulators to streamline vaccine oversight, and linking manufacturing facilities to speed up global production.
  • Support integration of R&D into the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) framework to include R&D capacity-building for medical countermeasures. Inclusion of metrics through a GHSA R&D taskforce will help countries assess, prioritize, and better plan for strengthening their R&D capabilities.
  • Build on the ACT-A’s response to COVID-19 to ensure a robust, end-to-end, and sustainable investment in global health R&D for pandemic preparedness, including long-term investments to strengthen global research, laboratory, and manufacturing capacities. This future readiness state should also foster more investments and partnerships with diverse research and academic institutions to both build regional R&D prior to crises and scale up support during emergencies. Investments should be made with policies that promote equitable global access to and affordability of tools like vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics.

4. Strengthen global and national surveillance capacities & outbreak analytics.

COVID-19 has demonstrated global gaps in early detection and data sharing around emerging threats, as well as gaps in ongoing surveillance capacities of countries, especially low-resource countries. Current emerging infectious disease surveillance and investigation is poorly allocated, with the majority of the globe’s resources not focused on areas with the most zoonotic hotspots where the next emerging deadly pathogen is likely to originate.

World leaders should:

  • Strengthen integrated national disease surveillance capacities in LMICs. Such surveillance capacities should take a One Health approach and be responsive to local needs (i.e., give results in real-time for use by clinicians and public health officials). Such capacities should not be developed in a silo for pandemic risk monitoring; rather they should provide utility for day-to-day public health programs, leverage the latest developments in digital tools to streamline operations for health workers, and accelerate data flow and analysis.
  • Strengthen mechanisms and platforms that allow for independent sharing and verification of data related to emerging health threats, complementary to and in partnership with the WHO’s role in collecting data from official sources under the IHRs. Such capacities should enable and promote more transparency and accountability in data access for all relevant stakeholders.
  • Commit to the rapid publishing and sharing of line list and pathogen genome data into shared repositories (e.g., the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System and the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration) to ensure that data necessary to monitor variants of concern can be acted upon before they become dominant.
  • Support innovations in outbreak detection and analytics capacity nationally through emergency operations centers, regionally through academic centers of excellence, and globally through laboratory and disease surveillance networks. The ACT-A has taught the community about the importance of collaboration and rapid response, and these lessons should be applied to future tools.

5. Bolster global capacities, institutions, and systems for pandemics, health security and resilient health systems, including through reforming WHO and strengthening international frameworks for pandemic preparedness and response.

World leaders should:

  • Build consensus for, and rapidly move to implement, proposals that will strengthen the WHO as the global coordinating authority on health. Leaders should support proposals for sustainable financing of the WHO, including incremental increases in assessed contributions and more (and more flexible) voluntary financing. Such resourcing should go hand-in-hand with strengthening the WHO’s normative and technical capacities, including the Chief Scientist’s Office, the Health Emergencies Programme, and the WHO Academy, and with encouraging greater staff mobility and budget flexibility to bolster the WHO’s capacities at the country-level. In line with the Framework for Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA), leaders must enable more robust and transparent engagement with key stakeholders such as civil society and the private sector.
  • Strengthen the IHRs to foster more timely and accountable response to pandemic threats, including to authorize international investigations. Leaders should afford the WHO the ability to independently investigate potential and emerging threats, specify better information sharing, and better calibrate the definitions of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Metrics on equity, R&D, infection prevention control, capacity strengthening, and water, sanitation and hygiene should also be included in the IHR Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, to incentivize countries to assess, plan, prioritize, and better support sustainable and resilient health systems, and promote healthcare worker safety.
  • Support other voluntary and compulsory instruments to strengthen accountability of nation states and foster multilateral cooperation for pandemic preparedness and response. Many gains can be made by strengthening existing mechanisms and instruments, which should be prioritized alongside the proposal for a new pandemic treaty. Such instruments should promote accountability in functions including ensuring novel countermeasures are treated as global public goods; motivating faster flow of financing to address direct and collateral impacts of pandemics, including protecting frontline health workers and social protection for vulnerable populations such as refugees and those living in conflict-affected areas; reaffirming the centrality of human rights considerations in the context of a pandemic; boosting domestic R&D and manufacturing capacity; and establishing up data surveillance systems, and norms and standards around data sharing and data privacy.
  • Scale up national and global vaccine education efforts to increase vaccine confidence, distribution, and uptake. Countries should have budgets dedicated for vaccine education within health ministries, initiate public education campaigns to manage the spread of misinformation online, and build capacity for vaccine hesitancy research. Training should be prioritized for frontline healthcare workers, community leaders, and others in how to engage in difficult conversations on vaccine hesitancy.

6. Promote equity-focused initiatives and human rights protections in all aspects of pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery, including specific attention to address the intersectional and gendered effects of outbreaks.

World leaders should:

  • Commit to equitable financing to support populations most at risk for morbidity and mortality, including addressing inequities due to disparities in gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and disability.
  • Ensure commitments to human rights and equity are met, in alignment with IHR Article 3 on human rights, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 for Women, Peace and Security, the UN Political Declaration for Universal Health Coverage, and the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
  • Commit to equal and diverse representation on emergency committees, including the IHR Emergency Committee and UN technical working groups, with active and meaningful participation of gender advisors and civil society groups as non-participant observers of EC meetings.
  • Ensure that all data pertinent to pandemic preparedness and response collected by the WHO and other health-focused UN bodies (as well as national governments) is published and disaggregated by sex and key socioeconomic groups.

 


 

An array of upcoming international summits — including the G20, G7, World Health Assembly, World Bank/IMF Meetings, and UN General Assembly — offer opportunities for leaders to act on this agenda. Critically, while health ministers have a key role to play, a concerted effort to end pandemics is a whole of government effort — and must be addressed at the level of heads of state. That is why the Pandemic Action Network supports the GPMB’s call for the UN Secretary-General to convene a focused UN High-Level Summit on Pandemic Preparedness and Response to mobilize increased domestic and international financing and advance efforts toward a new international framework for pandemic preparedness. Such a summit at head of state level should take up the forthcoming findings of the Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response (the Independent Panel), the G20 High-Level Independent Panel for Financing the Global Commons (HLIP), the International Health Regulations (IHR) Review Committee, and the proposal for a new international treaty on pandemic preparedness and response.

World leaders must seize this opportunity to commit to action and leave a legacy of a healthier and safer world. We can pandemic-proof the future if world leaders act now. The world can’t afford to wait.

Briefing: China in the Global COVID-19 Response ― Vaccine Development and Distribution

By Ming Geng

Ending the pandemic requires a robust, coordinated global response ― the virus does not respect borders. The longer COVID-19 is allowed to languish anywhere in the world, the more likely we will see other highly transmissible variants of the virus emerge and a continuing loop of infections, needless deaths, and lockdowns. Yet most of the world’s population still lacks a clear path to access the vaccines and other tools they need to stop this pandemic and prepare for the next one. Without concerted and swift action on all fronts, it could be years before COVID-19 vaccines are widely available in many low- and middle-income countries.

Amidst this context, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued the following statement, “The whole world needs to pull together in order to defeat the pandemic. China will continue to provide in a timely manner, to the best of its capability, vaccines to relevant countries, especially the developing countries, and contribute its share to building a global community of health for all. We also hope the international community will work together to promote the equitable allocation and use of vaccines globally to make sure developing countries have access to and can afford them.”

The following briefing details the current state of China’s vaccine development and distribution strategy.

Vaccine Development
Sinovac and Sinopharm are the two most advanced COVID-19 vaccine developers in China.

Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd, the Beijing based biopharmaceutical company is behind the CoronaVac, an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. CoronaVac has recently been authorized for emergency use in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Indonesia, and Turkey. There is now an academic debate on the wide range of the efficacy rate of CoronaVac reported by different countries. The effectiveness ranges from 91.25% in Turkey to 50.4% in Brazil.

The China National Pharmaceutical Group (Sinopharm) has led the development of two inactive COVID-19 vaccines which have gone through phase III clinical trials in several countries. BBIBP-CorV is developed by Sinopharm, China National Biotec Group, and the Beijing Institute of Biological Product, and has already received emergency use authorization from China, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The other inactive vaccine candidate is developed by Sinopharm, China National Biotec Group, and the Wuhan Institute of Biological Product. This vaccine is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials in UAE, Peru, Morocco, and China. Some reports indicate that this vaccine has also been granted emergency use authorization in some countries.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are currently three Chinese vaccine candidates that are undergoing phase III clinical trials, which are Ad5-nCov by CanSino, ZF2001 by Anhui Zhihui Longcom, an unnamed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine by the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. In addition, there are three Chinese vaccine candidates that are currently in phase II clinical trial: DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT1 by Wantai Biological Pharmacy, a Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 by West China Hospital, and an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Vero cell) by Beijing Minhai Biotechnology Co. In addition, Chinese manufacturers are also actively involved in global vaccine development cooperation. Most notably, Fosun Pharma participated in Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine development.

Vaccine Distribution ― Domestic Market
The current vaccination strategy in China is a two-step approach: the first step targets priority groups, and the second step covers the rest of the population. At present, the vaccination campaign covers people ages 18 to 59 with a high risk of infection and transmission, including people engaged in the handling of imported cold-chain products, people working in wet markets, medical workers, customs officers, watercraft pilots, air crews, public transport workers, and people who have to work and study abroad in high-risk countries.

According to a recent press conference held by the National Health Commission on January 13, China will expand the target population for COVID-19 vaccination to include elderly people over the age of 60. The expanded strategy is due to increasing data from clinical research on vaccines, a growing supply of vaccines, and the need to better control the outbreak.

In addition, youth ages 3 to 17 years-old may also be vaccinated as early as March 2021, according to Sinopharm. The company is submitting relevant clinical data to the National Medical Products Administration.

According to the National Health Commission, more than 10 million people have already been vaccinated as of January 13, 2021. The aim is to vaccinate another 40 million by Chinese New Year. In Beijing alone, it was reported that 1.7 million people have been vaccinated in 205 infusion sites, set up across the city.

Beyond the domestic vaccination plan, the Chinese government also will provide assistance to Chinese citizens who now live abroad in receiving vaccination, especially with Chinese-produced vaccines.

Vaccine Distribution ― International Market
As of January 15, at least 20 countries have purchased COVID-19 vaccines developed by Chinese manufacturers, including Sinovac and Sinopharm, according to Global Times calculations, with more planning to purchase Chinese vaccines, despite politicalized scrutiny by some western media over their efficacy and safety.

The following graph shows the purchase of COVID-19 vaccines produced by two main Chinese vaccine manufacturers.

 

GT_Vaccine Purchase

According to China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, China has already joined COVAX, the global initiative on equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines. In order to bridge the huge supply gap in developing countries, China will donate 10 million doses of vaccines to COVAX upon the request from WHO. Meanwhile, China is providing vaccine aid to Pakistan, Brunei, Nepal, the Philippines, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Palestine, Belarus, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Equatorial Guinea, altogether 13 countries. In addition to taking an active part in COVAX, China is targeting reach to additional 38 low- and middle-income countries.

Recommendations for the Biden-Harris Administration – Now or Never: An Agenda for Global Action to Make America and the World Safer from Pandemic Threats

We urge President-elect Biden and the incoming Biden-Harris Administration to launch and lead an aggressive agenda for action on global health security to end the COVID-19 pandemic as quickly as possible while accelerating global preparedness for the next pandemic. The following five-point agenda for action has been prepared by a group of leading U.S. global health policy experts, including two of our Pandemic Action Network co-founders. The outlined recommendations reflect the group’s collective experience as well as the conclusions of an extensive body of research and reports from numerous expert groups over the past five years. As the pandemic has upended lives and livelihoods in every household in America and every corner of the globe, the political moment is ripe for President-elect Biden to galvanize and lead a global coalition of public and private actors around a shared commitment to help prevent a deadly and costly pandemic like COVID-19 from happening again. President-elect Biden has the opportunity to leave a longer-term legacy that will better prepare humanity to more effectively address emerging pandemic threats, and break the persistent cycle of panic and neglect once and for all. Waiting until this crisis is over or until the next one happens will be too late. It’s now or never. Read the five-point agenda white paper here: Now or Never: An Agenda for Global Action to Make America and the World Safer from Pandemic Threats

Guaranteeing Equitable Access: Considerations During Vaccine Development Impacting Global Access

As world leaders come together to strategize how best to inoculate against, test for, and treat COVID-19 across the world, they must prioritize equity in their agendas to end this pandemic as swiftly as possible. The Pandemic Action Network’s Ending Barriers to Equitable Access Working Group has crafted a briefing with key considerations for decision-makers to ensure vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics reach those who need it most, when they need it most. We are all at risk until this disease is defeated internationally. We must ensure that low- and middle-income countries and vulnerable groups have equitable access to the tools needed to fight COVID-19 on every front. Read the full paper here.

Contributors to the paper include Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevölkerung (DSW), Global Citizen, Global Health Technologies Coalition (GHTC), PATH, and VillageReach. Special thank you to DSW for design support.

Pandemic Action Agenda: What World Leaders Should Do to Help Prevent the Next Pandemic

With global COVID-19 cases set to surpass 50 million and spiking across the United States and Europe, world leaders are gathering in a series of international summits to discuss what they will do to stop the pandemic. The current crisis demands urgent and united action as a global community, as no country will be safe from the virus until every country is safe.

But this pandemic didn’t have to happen, and the next one won’t wait. As they fight the current battle, leaders must also take steps NOW to bolster our global and national defenses against emerging pandemic threats before they materialize.

Synthesizing lessons of what has gone wrong in COVID-19 and in previous outbreaks and epidemics, the Pandemic Action Network’s Global Health Security Architecture Working Group has identified six priorities for international action to ensure the world is better prepared for the next pandemic. These are captured in our brief Pandemic Action Agenda paper released last month.

 

 

Pandemic Action Agenda Series

Now we’re pleased to release a series of Pandemic Action Agenda papers which expand on each of the six priority areas for action:

Pandemic Action Agenda Summary: Calling on world leaders to strengthen the global health security architecture and governance and make the world better prepared for pandemics. 

Global Health R&D: Bolstering the global research and development architecture for health security.

Outbreak Detection: Enhancing the availability and use of reliable data and early warning systems to drive more effective preparedness and response to outbreaks.

Pandemic Financing: Mobilizing sufficient funding for national pandemic preparedness and global response efforts. 

Country Capacity: Enhancing countries’ capacity to prevent and respond to outbreaks through technical assistance and improving health security infrastructure.

Pandemic Supplies: Solving supply chain bottlenecks and ramping up regional and local production and delivery to ensure health workers everywhere have access to sufficient quality personal protective equipment (PPE) and other frontline health supplies.

Metrics and Evaluation: Increasing accountability through more effective mechanisms to assess—and fill gaps in—country preparedness levels. COMING SOON

 

What You Can Do

Advocate for action. Help us deliver the Pandemic Action Agenda directly to key decision-makers in your country and international organizations, and press them to take action on these issues. Contact Naomi Komuro at [email protected]emicactionnetwork.org and let us know who you can reach (or we can give you ideas!). 

Spread the word. Share the #PandemicActionAgenda on your social media channels and through other communications within your networks to help build us momentum to prioritize global preparedness. Find the social toolkit here

Hold leaders to account. Sustained advocacy and communications are essential to avoid repeating the cycle of panic and neglect when it comes to deadly outbreaks. Follow up with decision-makers through emails, meetings or events, and ask them share what they are doing to respond to the Pandemic Action Agenda—and let us know what you learn to inform our ongoing advocacy efforts. 

Every effort we make in the fight against COVID-19 should leave a longer-term legacy that better prepares humanity to more effectively deal with outbreaks and pandemics and—when possible—to prevent them at the source. 

Want to learn more? Please contact Carolyn Reynolds, Co-Founder, Pandemic Action Network at [email protected]

 

The Next Pandemic Won’t Wait: An Agenda for Action to Strengthen Global Preparedness

While the world is focused on the COVID-19 response, we cannot afford to continue to ignore or delay action to bolster global preparedness for emerging pandemic threats. The Pandemic Action Network released a brief paper with topline recommendations from our Global Health Security Architecture working group urging world leaders to take steps now that will help prevent the next pandemic. Read the paper here.

GPMB to World Leaders: Now Will You Listen?

By Carolyn Reynolds, Co-Founder Pandemic Action Network

 

We warned you, but you did not listen.  That’s the overarching message of the new report from the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board (GPMB) entitled A World in Disorder.  In their inaugural report one year ago, the GPMB warned of the risk of a high impact, respiratory pathogen that could quickly spread around the globe.  Now in their latest report with a starker cover and a sterner title and narrative―much like parents admonishing their delinquent teenagers―the current and former global health elders that make up the GPMB are wagging their fingers and telling world leaders: you’re out of chances.

This year’s report echoes many of the main messages from last year’s (and from many other expert commissions in recent years), including: national political leadership is paramount; investing in preparedness is not only about saving lives, it’s about protecting economies; the impact―and hence the solutions―of pandemic preparedness go well beyond the health sector, and require a One Health approach; and no one in the world is safe until everyone is safe.

Four recommendations in the report that are particularly welcome:

The UN Secretary General should convene a UN Summit on Global Health Security with heads of state, the WHO Director General, and heads of the International Financial Institutions to forge a new international preparedness and response framework.

Create a new sustainable financing mechanism for global health security that incentivizes nations to prioritize preparedness and recognizes it as a global common good that should not be at the mercy of political and economic cycles.  This echoes the call of many of our Network partners for a Global Health Security Challenge Fund.

Amend the International Health Regulations (IHRs) to improve access to information and increase member state accountability beyond the scope of the current IHRs.  This will be politically fraught but unavoidable to drive the change necessary.

Finance global health R&D as a public good by building on the unprecedented international scientific collaboration around COVID-19 to create a sustainable, coordinated global R&D financing and delivery mechanism to facilitate rapid R&D for epidemic-risk and novel diseases and ensure that every country has an affordable and reliable pathway to secure vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics, and other medical countermeasures for health emergencies when they need them.

Unfortunately (although not surprisingly), the request for a high-level summit was stripped from the omnibus COVID-19 resolution passed by this year’s UN General Assembly, a casualty of the highly polarized geopolitical environment. But advocates should not be deterred.  Such a summit to prioritize pandemics as a grave global security threat, secure high-level political commitments, and drive a new international consensus and accountability is the right call to action.  The Pandemic Action Network and our partners will be pressing world leaders to convene this summit before the end of 2021―this should happen as soon as possible after the Independent Panel on Preparedness and Response delivers its report to the World Health Assembly next May.  To ensure this results in meaningful change by governments and international institutions, the planning should get underway now.

Does this year’s GPMB report have a better chance than its predecessor to convince policymakers to act?  I am cautiously optimistic, for two reasons. First, its warning is no longer hypothetical. The COVID-19 pandemic is still unfolding before our eyes, with no end yet in sight, and it looks likely to get worse before it gets better as we see resurgences around the globe and flu season gets underway.  If there was ever a time that political leaders may be open to do something, this should be it.

Second, we now have a global advocacy effort focused on preparedness to take up these calls for action and hold national and global leaders to account.  GPMB co-chair As Sy, the former Secretary-General of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, said we need “a global movement of solidarity” committed to inclusion, partnership and compassion to make the world safer from pandemics.  The Pandemic Action Network is dedicated to growing this movement: In a few short months we have brought together more than 40 organizations with global reach to drive collective action to end this pandemic and help prevent the next one.  And we are just getting started.

At the GPMB report launch, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said, “If we do not learn these lessons now and take the steps necessary, when will we? This will not be the last pandemic or global health emergency.  Every day we stand by and do nothing is another day we come closer to the next disaster.  We don’t know what it will be, but we know it will come―and we must prepare.  When it comes to preparedness, our biggest obstacle is ourselves.”

The warnings are crystal clear. So, will leaders listen this time and do what is required to prepare for the next pandemic? The Pandemic Action Network is here to make sure they do.  Join us!

Advice to the Independent Panel on Preparedness and Response

The planet is only nine months into the Covid-19 pandemic, yet the scramble has begun to digest the lessons learned and prescribe corrective actions. Earlier this week, the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board and the Lancet COVID-19 Commission each weighed in with recommendations. Eyes are now on the Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response (IPPR), announced by the director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO) in response to the Covid-19 resolution approved by WHO member states in May. This week, the panel initiates its work with an ambitious timeline to submit interim findings to the next meeting of the World Health Assembly (WHA) in November and a final report next May.

Pandemic Action Network co-founder Carolyn Reynolds joins Steve Morrison, Senior Vice President and Director of the Global Health Policy Center at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, to provide advice to the Panel on how it can have the most impact on making the world safer from pandemics. Read their commentary here: https://www.csis.org/analysis/advice-independent-panel-pandemic-preparedness-and-response

Break the Cycle of Panic and Neglect: Preventing the Next Pandemic

Time for unprecedented international cooperation say global health organizations

In the wake of the US decision to terminate the relationship with the World Health Organization (WHO), Pandemic Action Network and leading global health organizations have published a brief paper outlining some of the critical steps that the world needs to take to prevent pandemics.

The report sets out a key challenge for global leaders to work together in an unprecedented way to end COVID-19 as swiftly as possible and prepare for future pandemic threats.

The report, published jointly by the Pandemic Action Network, ONE, PATH, Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), Global Health Security Agenda Consortium (GHSAC), Management Sciences for Health (MSH) and Global Citizen highlights how years of ‘panic and neglect’ in the international health system has led to inadequate preparedness for pandemics in every country, resulting in the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives to COVID-19. Among the report’s recommendations is to strengthen WHO. Read the report HERE.

A Down Payment on the Future

May 05, 2020
By Eloise Todd, Co-Founder of Pandemic Action Network

A Down Payment on the Future

The impressive 4 May online pledging conference organised by the European Union had two clear goals: first, to show global solidarity and cooperation against the backdrop of a world fragmented by politics, inequality and a fractured response to COVID-19; and second, to raise US$8bn for the development of diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines to accelerate the end of the pandemic.

On the first objective, the event was a resounding success: the resolve to work together was deep and global – albeit with the notable absence of the United States. Although participants skewed European, leaders from Australia, Canada, China, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, Oman, South Africa and the UAE were among those who joined to make this a global moment, and their unity of purpose was palpable. One after the other, leaders spoke with passion about the need to leave no one behind and to make sure a COVID-19 vaccine is a global public good, no matter where it’s produced. The across-the-board commitment to the speedy and equitable distribution of a new vaccine rang loud and clear. The private sector and Foundations were present and pledging too, and global health institutions also took the floor. The words of Richard Hatchett from CEPI were simple, honest and moving: “the work will not be easy, it will not be cheap, and we cannot be certain of our success; but by combining our skills, expertise and resources, we will find a way to defeat this disease.”

On the fundraising objective, was the event successful? Maybe. But for us as advocates, our hard work has already started – we’re digging into the numbers to ascertain which of those funds were genuinely new, and which fall inside of the parameters of the US$8bn target. This accountability work is vital: unless we set a clear baseline for what was announced, we will not be able to either understand where the remaining gaps are, or be able to set much needed (and more ambitious) goals for the future, nor will we be able to properly track and assess the impact of those investments. Transparency and accountability must be embedded in development aid, particularly in times of crisis. During the Ebola epidemic in 2014, many donors simply rebadged money that was already earmarked for Ebola-struck countries, and disbursements were difficult to track. Redeployment of funds can sometimes be a sensible policy decision – but it can also mean existing development programmes being starved of resources with serious knock-on effects for the most vulnerable populations.

While fully funding the R&D agenda is critical to defeating COVID-19, we also know that what was raised yesterday – even if we really did hit US$8bn – is only a fraction of what will be needed for a truly global response and recovery – even more will be needed on vaccine development, manufacturing and distribution alone. Furthermore, it’s vital that the world keeps its collective eye both on the short- and longer-term needs. A key goal of our new Pandemic Action Network is to ensure that the world makes the necessary investments not only to stop this pandemic, but also to help prevent the next one. That’s why we are calling on all donors to make sure the 4 May is seen as just the downpayment and beginning of a truly global process, and not a one-off moment that fizzles out. The rhetoric of many leaders and the promise of future pledging moments were promising, but as always, data and actions will speak the loudest.

We salute the European Commission for its leadership and all of the leaders who stepped up and pledged their support at this critical moment. President von der Leyen hinted there might be a next time, and that she would engage more partners. With our growing list of partners, the Pandemic Action Network is ready to accept that challenge. We urge a two-pronged approach: let’s get full transparency around the full tally of what’s been raised so far and embed those principles for the longer term, and let’s make sure that future pledges help close the global gaps in the overall COVID-19 response and make sure that every country is better prepared to prevent future pandemics. It’s time for us to reimagine the scale of the approach we need to take to protect the world from future crises – and we stand ready to work with partners to help establish, and achieve, that goal. A downpayment on our future has been made. Now we need the #UnitedAgainstCoronavirus coalition to dig even deeper commensurate with this current – and future – global challenge.

www.pandemicactionnetwork.org @PandemicAction